A critical review on the effective utilization of geothermal energy

Farrukh Jamil, Iqrash Shafiq, Asma Sarwer, Muhammad Ahmad, Parveen Akhter, Abrar Inayat, Sumeer Shafique, Young Kwon Park, Murid Hussain

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Rapid growth in the global population and associated elevated reliance on modern technology has resulted in increased demand for energy consumption. This has resulted in an increased focus on the development and generation of advanced sustainable energy systems. The swift implementation of sustainable renewable energy resource utilization and improvement in their efficiency by the modification of current technologies are the possible solutions that gave rise to the emergence of geothermal technology as a potential alternative. Geothermal technology is a non-carbon renewable energy resource that could be utilized efficiently to fulfil the energy demands while mitigating the climate change threat. According to the surveyed literature, the global geothermal energy power plant installation capacity has reached 14.3 GWe to successfully implement this sustainable alternative. In order to have a successful and uninterrupted way forward, it is essential to evaluate the constraints both in terms of technicality and economic feasibility to establish an approved framework. Moreover, the governance and monitoring regarding the social and environmental impact alongside the legal challenges should also be addressed. The significant barriers include increased capital cost, site selection, superiority of resources at diverse levels of rock bottoms, and obstruction from nearby residents that need to be addressed appropriately. As a result, policymakers will continue to seek measure that have least negative impact on environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)438-457
Number of pages20
JournalEnergy and Environment
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2024


  • Challenges
  • effective utilization
  • energy technologies
  • geothermal
  • renewable energy


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