Accuracy analysis of orthometric heights based on GNSS static surveying

Gwang Soo Shin, Joong Hee Han, Jay Hyoun Kwon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


In 2013, NGII(National Geographic Information Institute) has developed and provided the KNGeoid13(Korean National Geoid Model 2013) to support the fundamental computation of GNSS-derived orthometric height. In this study, the adjusted ellipsoidal height, the sum of geoidal height and height by the leveling, is applied to calculate the GNSS-derived orthometric height without the local bias, based on GNSS static surveying and KNGeoid13. The mean of errors in GNSS-derived orthometric heights could be verified with the leveling data, which was actually less than 0.5 cm with using the adjusted ellipsoidal heights, but 3 cm by calculating differences between ellipsoidal heights and geoidal heights. By analyze the accuracy of GNSS-derived orthometric height depending on the duration of observation, we could realized 95% of data shows less than 4 cm accuracy, when the GNSS survey conducting for 4 hours spread over two days, but while the case of GNSS survey conducting for 4 hours and 2 hours respectively, resulted in 95% of data less than 5cm level of accuracy. Also, if the ambiguity is fixed, less than 10cm of accuracy could be obtained at 95% of data for only 30 minutes GNSS survey over a day. Following the study, we expected that the height determination by GNSS and geoid models can be used in the public benchmark surveying.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)527-537
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2014


  • Adjusted Ellipsoidal Height
  • GNSS Static Surveying
  • GNSS-Derived Orthometric Height
  • KNGeoid13


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