Advancements in TiO2-based photocatalysis for environmental remediation: Strategies for enhancing visible-light-driven activity

Ruhma Rashid, Iqrash Shafiq, Muhammad Rehan Hasan Shah Gilani, Muhammad Maaz, Parveen Akhter, Murid Hussain, Kwang Eun Jeong, Eilhann E. Kwon, Sungjun Bae, Young Kwon Park

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Researchers have focused on efficient techniques for degrading hazardous organic pollutants due to their negative impacts on ecological systems, necessitating immediate remediation. Specifically, TiO2-based photocatalysts, a wide-bandgap semiconductor material, have been extensively studied for their application in environmental remediation. However, the extensive band gap energy and speedy reattachment of electron (e) and hole (h+) pairs in bare TiO2 are considered major disadvantages for photocatalysis. This review extensively focuses on the combination of semiconducting photocatalysts for commercial outcomes to develop efficient heterojunctions with high photocatalytic activity by minimizing the e/h+ recombination rate. The improved activity of these heterojunctions is due to their greater surface area, rich active sites, narrow band gap, and high light-harvesting tendency. In this context, strategies for increasing visible light activity, including doping with metals and non-metals, surface modifications, morphology control, composite formation, heterojunction formation, bandgap engineering, surface plasmon resonance, and optimizing reaction conditions are discussed. Furthermore, this review critically assesses the latest developments in TiO2 photocatalysts for the efficient decomposition of various organic contaminants from wastewater, such as pharmaceutical waste, dyes, pesticides, aromatic hydrocarbons, and halo compounds. This review implies that doping is an effective, economical, and simple process for TiO2 nanostructures and that a heterogeneous photocatalytic mechanism is an eco-friendly substitute for the removal of various pollutants. This review provides valuable insights for researchers involved in the development of efficient photocatalysts for environmental remediation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number140703
StatePublished - Feb 2024


  • Environmental remediation
  • Organic pollutants
  • Synthesis and modifications
  • TiO photocatalysts
  • Visible light activity


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