Alternative sequential deposition for optimization-free multi-component organic bulk heterojunctions

Minwoo Nam, Jihye Na, Jisu Shin, Hyun Hwi Lee, Rakwoo Chang, Doo Hyun Ko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Multi-component (ternary, quaternary, and beyond) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layers are considered one of the most effective ways of increasing the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Herein, an alternative sequential deposition method for the development of efficient multi-component OPVs without the need for the complex optimization steps typical for blend parameters is discussed. Simple sequential spin-coating of two binary donor:acceptor blends was applied to produce modified quaternary BHJ layers, making full use of the optoelectronic advantages offered by the two binary blends and their optimized morphological features. A combination of theoretical and experimental analyses revealed the occurrence of molecular reorganization during sequential deposition which facilitated self-optimized molecular stratification and cascade energy level alignment. By using expanded universality test to account for the diverse BHJ systems, this sequential deposition methodology creates new opportunities as an alternative fabrication platform to secure high-performance multi-component BHJ OPVs for versatile (i.e., indoor and outdoor) irradiation environments while overcoming many of the drawbacks of conventional manufacturing procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104883
JournalNano Energy
StatePublished - Aug 2020


  • Indoor photovoltaics
  • Molecular dynamics
  • Multi-component blend
  • Organic photovoltaics
  • Sequential deposition


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