Causes of Variation Orders in Road Construction Projects in Tanzania

Roziana Saki, Chunho Yeom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Variation order has long been an essential component of road construction projects worldwide, being predominantly observed in Tanzania, where road projects are particularly vulnerable. Objective: This study aimed to determine the sources of variation orders in Tanzanian road construction projects and provide a feasible remedy, such as reduction or eradication. Methods: A desk study and questionnaire were utilized as the research approach and analyzed using the relative importance index (RII) method. Results and Discussion: The results reveal that the most significant circumstances causing variation orders are financial problems, weather conditions, differing site conditions, changes in design, poor scheduling, lack of coordination, delay in approval, unavailability of equipment, and lack of communication. Conclusion: Recommended strategies to minimize variation orders were that all involved parties should plan before the commencement of on-site work and perform detailed site investigations. Consultants should ensure that the design and specifications are within the approved budget. All participants were required to spend adequate time in the pretender planning phase. Finally, accurate information and research should be obtained regarding procurement procedures, materials, and plants.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere187444782208182
JournalOpen Transportation Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022


  • Design
  • Equipment
  • Relative important index
  • Road construction
  • Tanzania
  • Variation order


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