Characterization and thermal behavior study of biomass from invasive acacia mangium species in brunei preceding thermochemical conversion

Ashfaq Ahmed, Muhammad S. Abu Bakar, Abdul Razzaq, Syarif Hidayat, Farrukh Jamil, Muhammad Nadeem Amin, Rahayu S. Sukri, Noor S. Shah, Young Kwon Park

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13 Scopus citations


Acacia mangium is a widely grown tree species across the forests in Brunei Darussalam, posing a threat to the existence of some native species in Brunei Darussalam. These species produce large quantities of lignocellulosic biomass from the tree parts comprising the phyllodes, trunk, bark, twigs, pods, and branches. This study examined the thermochemical characteristics and pyrolytic conversion behavior of these tree parts to assess the possibility of valorization to yield bioenergy. Proximate, ultimate, heating value, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses were performed to assess the thermochemical characterization, while thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to examine the pyrolytic degradation behavior. Proximate analysis revealed a moisture content, volatile, fixed carbon, and ash contents of 7.88–11.65 wt.%, 69.82–74.85 wt.%, 14.47–18.31 wt.%, and 1.41–2.69 wt.%, respectively. The heating values of the samples were reported in a range of 19.51–21.58 MJ/kg on a dry moisture basis, with a carbon content in the range of 45.50– 50.65 wt.%. The FTIR analysis confirmed the heterogeneous nature of the biomass samples with the presence of multiple functional groups. The pyrolytic thermal degradation of the samples occurred in three major stages from the removal of moisture and light extractives, hemicellulose and cellulose decomposition, and lignin decomposition. The bio‐oil yield potential from the biomass samples was reported in the range of 40 to 58 wt. %, highlighting the potential of Acacia mangium biomass for the pyrolysis process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5249
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 May 2021


  • Acacia mangium
  • Biomass characterization
  • Brunei Darussalam
  • Invasive species
  • Thermogravimetric analysis


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