Chip-Level RAID with Flexible Stripe Size and Parity Placement for Enhanced SSD Reliability

Jaeho Kim, Eunjae Lee, Jongmoo Choi, Donghee Lee, Sam H. Noh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


The move from SLC to MLC/TLC flash memory technology is increasing SSD capacity at lower cost, but at the cost of sacrificing reliability. An approach to remedy this loss is to employ the RAID architecture with the chips that comprise SSDs. However, using the traditional RAID approach may result in negative effects as the total number of writes is increased due to the parity updates. In this paper, we describe Elastic Striping and Anywhere Parity (eSAP)-RAID, a RAID scheme that allows flexible stripe sizes and parity placement. Using performance and lifetime models that we derive of SSDs employing RAID-5 and eSAP-RAID, we show that eSAP-RAID brings about significant performance and reliability benefits by reducing parity writes compared to RAID-5. We also implement these schemes in SSDs using DiskSim with SSD Extension and validate the models using realistic workloads. We also discuss policies such as dynamic stripe sizing and selective data protection that exploits the flexible nature of eSAP. We show that through such policies particular reliability enhancement goals can be met.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6983599
Pages (from-to)1116-1130
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computers
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2016


  • Flash memory
  • RAID
  • Reliability
  • SSD


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