Coding for predictive built environments: building and street typology choices in form-based codes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Form-based codes (FBCs) pursue alternative built environments that integrate design-focused approaches for the purpose of fostering predictable development outcomes. The emphasis of FBCs on legitimate building types and physical parameters may provide local authorities with new opportunities to incent a variety of sustainable design features. Despite the code’s recent popularity in urban infill and suburban retrofit projects, little research exists to explain the expected benefits of form-based approaches. This study evaluates the evolution of FBCs across diverse cities by relating a range of geographical scales to differing contextual conditions. Focusing on five FBCs adopted in the United States between 2010 and 2015, building and street design elements are analyzed to investigate the linkages between development context and built outcomes. This study supplements prior research on design coding by demonstrating that the local and metropolitan contexts of FBCs can help explain how placemaking goals may be achieved. The typology framework presented in this paper also serves as a minimum set of standards for reconciling the public’s expectation for amenities with the private sector’s willingness to contribute their resources to the local built environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-371
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2024


  • Form-based codes
  • design intervention
  • sustainable built environments
  • urban streetscape


Dive into the research topics of 'Coding for predictive built environments: building and street typology choices in form-based codes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this