Comparison of the exposure assessment of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate between the PBPK model-based reverse dosimetry and scenario-based analysis: A Korean general population study

Hyojung Yoon, Tae Hwan Kim, Byoung cheun Lee, Byeongwoo Lee, Pilje Kim, Beom Soo Shin, Jinhee Choi

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), classified as a reproductive toxicant, is a ubiquitous pollutant in foodstuffs, dust, and commercial products. In this study, to provide a useful cross-check on the accuracy of the exposure assessment, the estimated daily intake of DEHP was compared using reverse dosimetry with a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and a scenario-based probabilistic estimation model for six subpopulations in Korea. For reverse dosimetry analysis, the concentrations of urinary DEHP metabolites, namely mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate (MEOHP), from three human biomonitoring program datasets were used. For the scenario-based model, we evaluated the various exposure sources of DEHP, including diet, air, indoor dust, soil, and personal care products (PCPs), and also determined its levels based on the literature review and measurements of indoor dust. The DEHP exposure doses using both exposure assessment approaches were similar in all cases, except for the 95th percentile exposure doses in toddlers (1–2 years) and young children (3–6 years). The PBPK-reverse dosimetry estimated daily intakes at the 95th percentile ranged between 22.53 and 29.90 μg/kg/day for toddlers and young children. These exceeded the reference dose (RfD) of 20 μg/kg bw/day of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) based on the increased relative liver weight. Although, food was considered the primary source of DEHP, contributing to a total exposure of 50.8–75.1%, the effect of exposure to indoor dust should not be overlooked. The occurrence of high levels of DEHP in indoor dust collected from Korean homes suggests the use of a wide variety of consumer products containing DEHP. Furthermore, more attention should be paid to the high exposure levels of DEHP, especially in young children. Therefore, it is necessary to perform continuous monitoring of the indoor dust, consumer products, and the body burden of children.

Original languageEnglish
Article number133549
JournalChemosphere
Volume294
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2022

Keywords

  • Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)
  • Estimated daily intakes
  • Human biomonitoring
  • Reverse dosimetry with PBPK model
  • Scenario-based probabilistic estimation

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