Defining a model for integrating indoor and outdoor network data to support seamless navigation applications

Alexis Richard C. Claridades, Jiyeong Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Spaces are continuous realms where human beings freely navigate, such as from indoor to outdoor and optionally to another indoor space. However, currently available data models to represent space for navigation do not entirely reflect this continuity of freedom and movement. Data conversion or complications in implementation hinder current approaches to link indoor space with outdoor space due to the variety of present data models. Furthermore, this representation of indoor–outdoor connection becomes oversimplified during the integration process. Consequently, location-based applications based on these datasets are limited in conveying mobility within these spaces and aiding navigation activity. This paper defines a framework for integrating indoor and outdoor navigable space to enable seamless navigation. This model enables the connection between indoor and outdoor navigation networks. We describe the connections between these networks through spatial relationships, which can be generalized to represent various cases of indoor–outdoor transitional spaces. Using sample datasets, we demonstrate the framework’s potential to provide a seamless connection between indoor and outdoor space in a route analysis experiment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number565
JournalISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • Anchor node
  • Indoor and outdoor integration
  • OGC IndoorGML
  • Seamless navigation


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