Effect of aluminium additions on wettability and intermetallic compound (IMC) growth of lead free Sn (2 wt. % Ag, 5 wt. % Bi) soldered joints

Hee Yul Lee, Ashutosh Sharma, Se Ho Kee, Young Woo Lee, Jung Tak Moon, Jae Pil Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

The effect of a trace Al addition (0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 wt. %) in the Sn-2Ag-5Bi solder alloy on wettability and intermetallic compound (IMC) formation of the alloy was investigated. The interface between the solder and a Cu(17 μm)/Ni(4 μm)/Au (0.02 μm) under bump metallized (UBM) substrate was studied. The microstructure of the bulk solder and the interface of the soldered joints was observed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the thickness of the interface reaction layers was estimated. Various IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and by the electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). The experimental results indicated that the addition of 0.01 wt. % Al in the Sn-2Ag-5Bi solder alloy significantly improved the wettability of the solder more than the other Al additions did. The IMC layer between the bulk Sn-2Ag5Bi-0.01Al solder and the Cu/Ni/Au UBM substrate was almost uniform and thinner than those between the solders containing 0, 0.05, and 0.1 wt. % Al and their respective Cu/Ni/Au UBM substrates. Furthermore, the growth rate of the IMC layer between the Sn-2Ag-5Bi-0.01Al solder and Cu/Ni/Au UBM after 1 to 10 reflow times was lower than that of the IMC layer between the Sn-2Ag-5Bi solder and Cu/Ni/Au UBM. The IMCs in the solder joint interface (e.g., Ni3Sn4) of the Sn-2Ag-5Bi-0.01Al solder were well distributed near the Bi and fine Ag3Sn. The addition of 0.01 wt. % Al in the Sn-2Ag-5Bi solder yielded the best wetting properties for the solder and the minimum growth rate of the IMCs because it increased the nucleation rate of Ag3Sn and uniformly segregated the Bi phase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)997-1004
Number of pages8
JournalElectronic Materials Letters
Volume10
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2014

Keywords

  • intermetallic compounds (IMC)
  • lead free
  • reflow
  • solder joints
  • wettability

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