Effect of palladium on the black mass-based catalyst prepared from spent Zn/Mn alkaline batteries for catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds

Sang Chai Kim, Min Ki Kim, Sang Chul Jung, Ho Young Jung, Hyunook Kim, Young Kwon Park

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8 Scopus citations

Abstract

A large amount of spent batteries is produced annually. When spente batteries are buried, their harmful components may contaminate soil and water. Therefore, recycling of spent batteries is essential for environmental reasons. We evaluated the BM (black mass) of spent Zn/Mn alkaline batteries as a catalyst substance for the catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs: benzene, toluene, and o-xylene). The SBM catalyst (black mass-based catalyst) was prepared by treating BM with 0.1 N of sulfuric acid solution. Major elements of the SBM catalyst were manganese, zinc, iron, aluminum, potassium, and sodium except for carbon. In addition, to find out the additive effect of palladium on the SBM catalyst, we prepared the Pd/SBM catalysts using a conventional impregnation method. We investigated the physicochemical properties of the SBM and Pd/SBM catalysts by instrumental analysis. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene (BTX) were oxidized completely over the SBM catalyst at reaction temperatures less than 410, 340, and 410 °C, respectively (gas hourly space velocity: 40,000 h−1). As expected, for the Pd/SBM catalysts, increasing the palladium loading on the SBM from 0.1 wt% to 1.0 wt% increased the conversions of BTX. In the 1.0 wt% Pd/SBM catalyst, the reaction temperatures for catalytic combustion of BTX were greatly reduced to 310, 260, and 250 °C, respectively (gas hourly space velocity: 40,000 h−1). Instrumental analysis indicated that the increase in activity by adding palladium resulted from the active ingredient (palladium oxide: PdO) and better redox properties.

Original languageEnglish
Article number130209
JournalChemosphere
Volume276
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2021

Keywords

  • Black mass
  • Catalytic combustion
  • Palladium
  • Spent Zn/Mn alkaline battery
  • Volatile organic compounds

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