Electric Eel-Inspired Soft Electrocytes for Solid-State Power Systems

Won Bae Han, Dong Je Kim, Yong Min Kim, Gwan Jin Ko, Jeong Woong Shin, Tae Min Jang, Sungkeun Han, Heeseok Kang, Jun Hyeon Lim, Chan Hwi Eom, Joong Hoon Lee, Seung Min Yang, Kaveti Rajaram, Amay J. Bandodkar, Hong Chul Moon, Suk Won Hwang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


As the demand for power systems, including portable ones, is growing at an ever-faster pace, many studies are approaching to discover innovative materials for current battery technology or replace the existing ones with new systems through mimicking living things or nature. Here, a soft, solid-state power storage system featuring electric eel-inspired artificial electric organs capable of converting the chemical potential of an ionic gradient into electricity is introduced. These organs are constructed through the assembly of low and high ion-concentrated zwitterionic gel films with cation- and anion-selective intermembranes, which generate a rechargeable open-circuit voltage of ≈135 mV. Combined use of a chemically synthesized room-temperature ionic liquid and a high-boiling point organic solvent as ion-conducting electrolyte allows electric organs to withstand extreme temperatures ranging from −20 and 100 °C, while the thin and stretchable constituent layers facilitate mechanical flexibility without compromising electrical performance. Scalable integration of electric organs in series and parallel configurations achieves high levels of voltage and current outputs, and employment of origami folding geometry enables on-demand discharge upon self-registered folding, paving the way for portable, high-voltage energy sources in the fields of wearable electronics and soft robotics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2309781
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number2
StatePublished - 9 Jan 2024


  • electric eels
  • flexible power storages
  • ionic gradients
  • room-temperature ionic liquids
  • solid-state electrolytes


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