Electromigration of composite Sn-Ag-Cu solder bumps

Ashutosh Sharma, Di Erick Xu, Jasper Chow, Michael Mayer, Heung Rak Sohn, Jae Pil Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


This study investigates the electromigration (EM) behavior of lead free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder alloys that were reinforced with different types of nanoparticles [Copper-coated carbon nanotubes (Cu/CNT), La2O3, Graphene, SiC, and ZrO2]. The composite solders were bumped on a Cu substrate at 220°C, and the resistance of the bumped solders was measured using a four wire setup. Current aging was carried out for 4 hours at a temperature of 160°C, and an increase in resistance was noted during this time. Of all the composite solders that were studied, La2O3 and SiC reinforced SAC solders exhibited the smallest resistances after current aging. However, the rate of change in the resistance at room temperature was lower for the SiC-reinforced SAC solder. The SAC and Graphene reinforced SAC solder bumps completely failed within 15 - 20 min of these tests. The SiC nanoparticles were reported to possibly entrap the SAC atoms better than other nanoparticles with a lower rate of EM. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1072-1077
Number of pages6
JournalElectronic Materials Letters
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2015


  • Sn-Ag-Cu
  • composite solder
  • direct current aging
  • lead-free solder


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