Environmental benefit comparison between super bus rapid transit and tram systems

Gayoung Kang, Minje Choi, Joonsik Jo, Juhyeon Kwak, Yoonjung Jang, Seungjae Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In many cities worldwide, various urban problems such as traffic congestion and environmental pollution are becoming increasingly serious due to traffic. As global warming intensifies due to various causes, the Science Based Targets initiative has proposed a “Net-Zero” standard for net-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Many cities are adopting more sustainable and efficient alternative modes to replace existing transportation modes. In this study, we used Uiwang, Gunpo, and Ansan of the 3rd New Town in Korea as demonstration areas and analyzed the modal split process to investigate how much modal split can be generated from existing passenger car users if a tram, bus rapid transit (BRT), and super BRT (S-BRT) are presented as eco-friendly and feasible transportation modes. Subsequently, we analyzed the environmental impact of the tram, BRT, and S-BRT as the number of public transportation users increased. The analysis results show that the modal split to public transportation of the tram, BRT, and S-BRT occurred at 16,657, 20,990, and 24,268 trips/day, respectively, while the resulting air pollution costs were USD 46.01 million/year, 44.89 million/year, and USD 43.92 million/year, respectively. These results indicate that the S-BRT is environmentally friendly mobility and advantageous in terms of cost. The findings of this study demonstrate that the S-BRT is an effective public transportation mode for carbon neutrality.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100655
JournalCleaner Engineering and Technology
StatePublished - Aug 2023


  • Air pollution
  • Bus rapid transit
  • Eco-friendly mobility
  • Environmental benefit
  • Modal split
  • Super bus rapid transit


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