Facile fabrication of tin-doped hematite photoelectrodes - Effect of doping on magnetic properties and performance for light-induced water splitting

Jiri Frydrych, Libor MacHala, Jiri Tucek, Karolina Siskova, Jan Filip, Jiri Pechousek, Klara Safarova, Martin Vondracek, Jung Hwa Seo, Oldrich Schneeweiss, Michael Grätzel, Kevin Sivula, Radek Zboril

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations

Abstract

We present a new, easily scalable method for the deposition of nanocrystalline hematite photoelectrodes based on the spin-coating of a mixed solution containing tin(ii) and iron(iii) chlorides followed by thermal treatment. Our facile approach does not require any additional film-forming organic species and allows simple control of the photoelectrochemical performance of the electrode by adjusting the degree of tin doping. When annealed at 650 °C a strong increase in the water oxidation photocurrent is observed with increasing tin concentration. The maximum performance (0.45 mA cm -2 at 1.43 V vs. RHE) was found at the highest possible tin loading (20:100, Sn:Fe). The contrasting performance of electrodes annealed at 650 °C and 800 °C suggests different activation processes for dopant diffusion and activation. The doping of tin into the crystal structure of hematite thin films is directly evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and indirectly by changes in the intrinsic magnetic parameters (Morin temperature, Néel temperature) of the hematite films. The magnetization measurements thus represent a potential technique to quantify doping amounts in hematite.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23232-23239
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry
Volume22
Issue number43
DOIs
StatePublished - 21 Nov 2012

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