Fate of five bisphenol derivatives in Chlamydomonas mexicana: Toxicity, removal, biotransformation and microalgal metabolism

Nikita Yadav, Hyun Jo Ahn, Mayur B. Kurade, Yongtae Ahn, Young Kwon Park, Moonis Ali Khan, El Sayed Salama, Xiangkai Li, Byong Hun Jeon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Bisphenols (BPs) are recognized as emerging contaminants because of their estrogenic properties and frequent occurrence in environmental matrices. Here, we evaluated the toxic effects of five common BPs on freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas mexicana and removal of the BPs by the alga. Bisphenols -AF (BPAF), -B (BPB), and -Z (BPZ) (96 h, EC50 1.78–12.09 mg·L−1) exhibited higher toxicity to C. mexicana compared to bisphenol -S (BPS) and -F (BPF) (96 h, EC50 30.53–85.48 mg·L−1). In contrast, the mixture of BPs exhibited acute toxicity (96 h, EC50 8.07 mg·L−1). After 14 days, C. mexicana had effectively removed 61%, 99%, 55%, 87%, and 89% of BPS, BPF, BPAF, BPB, and BPZ, respectively, at 1 mg L−1. The biotransformed products of all five BPs were analyzed using UHPLC QTOF, and their toxicity was predicted. All biotransformed products were observed to be less toxic than the parent compounds. The fatty acid composition of C. mexicana after exposure to the BP mixture was predominantly palmitic acid (34.14%), followed by oleic acid (18.9%), and γ-linolenic acid (10.79%). The results provide crucial information on the ecotoxicity of these five BPs and their removal by C. mexicana; the resulting biomass is a potential feedstock for producing biodiesel.

Original languageEnglish
Article number131504
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume454
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Jul 2023

Keywords

  • Biodiesel
  • Bioremediation
  • Bisphenols
  • Chlamydomonas mexicana
  • Ecotoxicity

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Fate of five bisphenol derivatives in Chlamydomonas mexicana: Toxicity, removal, biotransformation and microalgal metabolism'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this