Ferrate(VI) oxidation of propranolol: Kinetics and products

George A.K. Anquandah, Virender K. Sharma, Venkata R. Panditi, Piero R. Gardinali, Hyunook Kim, Mehmet A. Oturan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

96 Scopus citations


The oxidation of propranolol (PPL), a β-blocker by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)) was studied by performing kinetics, stoichiometry, and analysis of the reaction products. The rate law for the oxidation of PPL by Fe(VI) was first-order with respect to each reactant. The dependence of second-order rate constants of the reaction of Fe(VI) and PPL on pH was explained using acid-base equilibrium of Fe(VI) and PPL. The required molar stoichiometry for the complete removal of PPL was determined to be 6:1 ([Fe(VI)]:[PPL]). The identified products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were oxidized product (OP)-292, OP-308, and OP-282. The formed OPs could possibly compete with the parent molecule to react with Fe(VI) and thus resulted in a non-linear relationship between degradation of PPL and the added amount of Fe(VI). Rate and removal studies indicate the Fe(VI) is able to oxidize PPL and hence can also oxidize other β-blockers, e.g., atenolol and metoprolol.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-109
Number of pages5
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2013


  • Beta blockers
  • Ferrate
  • Kinetics
  • Oxidized products
  • Removal


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