Genome Sequence of Striga asiatica Provides Insight into the Evolution of Plant Parasitism

Satoko Yoshida, Seungill Kim, Eric K. Wafula, Jaakko Tanskanen, Yong Min Kim, Loren Honaas, Zhenzhen Yang, Thomas Spallek, Caitlin E. Conn, Yasunori Ichihashi, Kyeongchae Cheong, Songkui Cui, Joshua P. Der, Heidrun Gundlach, Yuannian Jiao, Chiaki Hori, Juliane K. Ishida, Hiroyuki Kasahara, Takatoshi Kiba, Myung Shin KimNamjin Koo, Anuphon Laohavisit, Yong Hwan Lee, Shelley Lumba, Peter McCourt, Jenny C. Mortimer, J. Musembi Mutuku, Takahito Nomura, Yuko Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yoshiya Seto, Yu Wang, Takanori Wakatake, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Taku Demura, Shinjiro Yamaguchi, Koichi Yoneyama, Ri ichiroh Manabe, David C. Nelson, Alan H. Schulman, Michael P. Timko, Claude W. dePamphilis, Doil Choi, Ken Shirasu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Scopus citations


Parasitic plants in the genus Striga, commonly known as witchweeds, cause major crop losses in sub-Saharan Africa and pose a threat to agriculture worldwide. An understanding of Striga parasite biology, which could lead to agricultural solutions, has been hampered by the lack of genome information. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Striga asiatica with 34,577 predicted protein-coding genes, which reflects gene family contractions and expansions that are consistent with a three-phase model of parasitic plant genome evolution. Striga seeds germinate in response to host-derived strigolactones (SLs) and then develop a specialized penetration structure, the haustorium, to invade the host root. A family of SL receptors has undergone a striking expansion, suggesting a molecular basis for the evolution of broad host range among Striga spp. We found that genes involved in lateral root development in non-parasitic model species are coordinately induced during haustorium development in Striga, suggesting a pathway that was partly co-opted during the evolution of the haustorium. In addition, we found evidence for horizontal transfer of host genes as well as retrotransposons, indicating gene flow to S. asiatica from hosts. Our results provide valuable insights into the evolution of parasitism and a key resource for the future development of Striga control strategies. Yoshida et al. report the Striga genome sequence, providing insights into parasitic plant genome evolution and a key resource for the future development of Striga control strategies. The genome also shows evidence for the horizontal transfer of host genes and retrotransposons, indicating gene flow to the parasite from hosts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3041-3052.e4
JournalCurrent Biology
Issue number18
StatePublished - 23 Sep 2019


  • Orobanchaceae
  • Striga
  • genome
  • horizontal gene transfer
  • parasitic plant
  • strigoractone
  • transcriptome


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