Identification of novel PHD-finger genes in pepper by genomic re-annotation and comparative analyses

Ji Yoon Guk, Min Jeong Jang, Seungill Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: The plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger gene family that belongs to zinc-finger genes, plays an important role in epigenetics by regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. However, inaccurate annotation of PHD-finger genes hinders further downstream comparative, evolutionary, and functional studies. Results: We performed genome-wide re-annotation in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), Oryza sativa (rice), Capsicum annuum (pepper), Solanum tuberosum (potato), and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) to better understand the role of PHD-finger genes in these species. Our investigation identified 875 PHD-finger genes, of which 225 (26% of total) were newly identified, including 57 (54%) novel PHD-finger genes in pepper. The PHD-finger genes of the five plant species have various integrated domains that may be responsible for the diversification of structures and functions of these genes. Evolutionary analyses suggest that PHD-finger genes were expanded recently by lineage-specific duplication, especially in pepper and potato, resulting in diverse repertoires of PHD-finger genes among the species. We validated the expression of six newly identified PHD-finger genes in pepper with qRT-PCR. Transcriptome analyses suggest potential functions of PHD-finger genes in response to various abiotic stresses in pepper. Conclusions: Our data, including the updated annotation of PHD-finger genes, provide useful information for further evolutionary and functional analyses to better understand the roles of the PHD-finger gene family in pepper.

Original languageEnglish
Article number206
JournalBMC Plant Biology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Abiotic stress
  • Gene family
  • PHD-finger
  • Pepper
  • Re-annotation


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