Impact of a simple load balancing approach and an incentive-based scheme on MANET performance

Younghwan Yoo, Sanghyun Ahn, Dharma P. Agrawal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Most reactive mobile ad hoc network (MANET) routing protocols such as AODV and DSR do not perform search for new routes until the network topology changes. But, low node mobility does not affect the MANET connectivity and the same routes may be used for a long time. This may cause concentration of traffic on few mobile stations (MSs), which results in congestion and hence longer end-to-end delay. In addition, continuous use of MSs may cause their battery power to get exhausted rapidly. Expiration of MS energy causes disruption of connections traversing through the MSs and could generate many simultaneous new routing requests. Therefore, we propose a load balancing approach called Simple Load Balancing Approach (SLBA), which can be transparently added to any current reactive routing protocol such as AODV and DSR. SLBA minimizes the traffic concentration by allowing each MS to drop RREQ or to give up packet forwarding depending on its own traffic load. Meanwhile, MSs may deliberately give up forwarding packets to save their own energy. For encouraging MSs to volunteer in forwarding packets, we introduce a reward scheme for packet forwarding, named Protocol-Independent Fairness Algorithm (PIFA). We compare the performance of AODV and DSR with and without SLBA and PIFA. Simulation results indicate that SLBA can distribute traffic very well and improve the MANET performance. PIFA is also observed to prevent MANET partitioning and any performance degradation due to selfish nodes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-83
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Parallel and Distributed Computing
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2010


  • Forwarding incentives
  • Load balancing
  • Mobile ad hoc network
  • Protocol Independent
  • Selfish nodes


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