Impact of estimated pulse wave velocity and socioeconomic status on the risk of stroke in men: a prospective cohort study

Sae Young Jae, Kevin S. Heffernan, Hyun Jeong Kim, Setor K. Kunutsor, Bo Fernhall, Sudhir Kurl, Jari A. Laukkanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective:High pulse wave velocity (PWV) and low socioeconomic status (SES) are each associated with increased risk of stroke, but clarification of the interplay between PWV, SES and the risk of stroke appears to be warranted to identify vulnerable populations at high risk of stroke. We conducted a prospective study that examined the independent and joint associations of PWV and SES with the risk of stroke in the general population.Methods:The current study included 2666 men aged 42-61 years, who were enrolled in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Study cohort. Estimated PWV (ePWV), a proxy of carotid-femoral PWV, was calculated from an equation based on age and mean blood pressure. SES was assessed using self-reported questionnaires and classified as tertiles, whereas ePWV was categorized as high (≥10m/s) and low (<10m/s).Results:Individuals with high ePWV had a 48% higher risk of stroke after adjusting for confounding factors, whereas individuals with low SES had a similar 35% increased risk of stroke, compared with those high SES. Results of the joint associations of ePWV and SES with stroke showed high ePWV-high SES and high ePWV-low SES to be each associated with an increased risk of stroke: hazard ratios 1.53, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) (1.12-2.08) and hazard ratio 1.63, 95% CI (1.21-2.20), respectively, but low ePWV-low SES was not associated with a heightened risk of stroke (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% CI 0.87-1.44) compared with the low ePWV-high SES group.Conclusion:ePWV and SES are each independently associated with stroke risk. The association between elevated ePWV and the heightened risk of stroke is regardless of low or high SES.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1165-1169
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Hypertension
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2022


  • pulse wave velocity
  • socioeconomic status
  • stroke


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