Influence of surfactants and experimental variables on the viscosity characteristics of coal water mixtures

Ho Won Ra, Sung Min Yoon, Tae Young Mun, Myung Won Seo, Ji Hong Moon, Sang Jun Yoon, Jae Ho Kim, Jae Goo Lee, Min Zy Jung, Jong Dae Lee

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2 Scopus citations


To improve the fluidity of a coal water mixture (CWM) having lower viscosity and higher solid concentration, the effects of surfactants (five kinds) and experimental variables such as temperature (5-65 °C), pH (1-11), particle size distribution (PSD) on the viscosity characteristics of two different coals (Shenhua and Kideco Coal) were investigated. Relatively economical surfactants were chosen in this study: sulfonated melamine formaldehyde polymer (SMF-30), naphthalene formaldehyde sulfonate (Sikament-NN), naphthalene sulfonate water reducer (NSWR), naphthalene formaldehyde sulfonate (PC-1000) and poly-carboxylate (PC). The SMF-30, an anionic surfactant, revealed the most significant reduction in viscosity of CWM among the five surfactants since the SMF-30 forms electric double layer on the surface of coal, and the repulsive force of this layer surpasses the aggregation of coal particles. In addition, the viscosity of CWM decreased with increasing pH and temperature, in particular, the increase in OH- on the surface of coals by the addition of NaOH caused the increase in the repulsive force between the negatively charged coal particles. Furthermore, the very fine particles (less than 45 μm) of coals should be removed before making CWMs since it revealed the increase in viscosity of CWMs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1219-1224
Number of pages6
JournalKorean Journal of Chemical Engineering
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2018


  • Coal Water Mixture (CWM)
  • Particle Size Distribution (PSD)
  • Surfactant
  • Viscosity
  • pH


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