Investigating the impact of random and systematic errors on GPS Precise Point Positioning ambiguity resolution

Joong Hee Han, Zhizhao Liu, Jay Hyoun Kwon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is an increasingly recognized precisely the GPS/GNSS positioning technique. In order to improve the accuracy of PPP, the error sources in PPP measurements should be reduced as much as possible and the ambiguities should be correctly resolved. The correct ambiguity resolution requires a careful control of residual errors that are normally categorized into random and systematic errors. To understand effects from two categorized errors on the PPP ambiguity resolution, those two GPS datasets are simulated by generating in locations in South Korea (denoted as SUWN) and Hong Kong (PolyU). Both simulation cases are studied for each dataset; the first case is that all the satellites are affected by systematic and random errors, and the second case is that only a few satellites are affected. In the first case with random errors only, when the magnitude of random errors is increased, L1 ambiguities have a much higher chance to be incorrectly fxed. However, the size of ambiguity error is not exactly proportional to the magnitude of random error. Satellite geometry has more impacts on the L1 ambiguity resolution than the magnitude of random errors. In the first case when all the satellites have both random and systematic errors, the accuracy of fixed ambiguities is considerably affected by the systematic error. A pseudorange systematic error of 5 cm is the much more detrimental to ambiguity resolutions than carrier phase systematic error of 2 mm. In the 2nd case when only a portion of satellites have systematic and random errors, the L1 ambiguity resolution in PPP can be still corrected. The number of allowable satellites varies from stations to stations, depending on the geometry of satellites. Through extensive simulation tests under different schemes, this paper sheds light on how the PPP ambiguity resolution (more precisely L1 ambiguity resolution) is affected by the characteristics of the residual errors in PPP observations. The numerical examples recall the PPP data analysts that how accurate the error correction models must achieve in order to get all the ambiguities resolved correctly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233-244
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2014


  • Ambiguity resolution (AR)
  • Global positioning system (GPS)
  • Precise Point Positioning (PPP)
  • Random and systematic errors


Dive into the research topics of 'Investigating the impact of random and systematic errors on GPS Precise Point Positioning ambiguity resolution'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this