Line-of-sight (LOS) vector adjustment model for restitution of SPOT 4 imagery

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In this paper, a new approach has been studied correcting the geometric distortion of SPOT 4 imagery. Two new equations were induced by the relationship between satellite and the Earth in the space, line-of-sight (LOS) vector adjustment model for SPOT 4 imagery was implemented in this study. This model is to adjust LOS vector under the assumption that the orbital information of satellite provided by receiving station is uncertain and this uncertainty makes a constant error over the image. This model is verified using SPOT 4 satellite image with high look angle and thirty five ground points, which include 10 GCPs(Ground Control Points) and 25 check points, measured by the GPS. In total thirty five points, the geometry of satellite image calculated by given satellite information(such as satellite position, velocity, attitude and look angles, etc) from SPOT 4 satellite image was distorted with a constant error. Through out the study, it was confirmed that the LOS vector adjustment model was able to be applied to SPOT4 satellite image. Using this model, RMSEs (Root Mean Square Errors) of twenty five check points taken by increasing the number of GCPs from two to ten were less than one pixel. As a result, LOS vector adjustment model could efficiently correct the geometry of SPOT4 images with only two GCPs. This method also is expected to get good results for the different satellite images that are similar to the geometry of SPOT images.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249-256
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2010


  • GCP
  • Geometric correction
  • LOS vector adjustment model
  • SPOT 4


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