Long-term stability study of graphene-passivated black phosphorus under air exposure

Jiho Kim, Seung Kwan Baek, Keun Soo Kim, Young Jun Chang, E. J. Choi

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76 Scopus citations


We use the graphene as a passivation layer to protect the black phosphorus from chemical reaction with air. Flakes of the black phosphorus crystal are covered by N = 1, 2, and 3 layers of CVD graphene and the Raman phonon modes are measured after the samples are exposed to air. For the double and triple layer passivation (N = 2,3) the Raman phonon peaks are maintained as long as ∼100 h (4 days) before the phonon intensity is reduced to 90% of the initial strength, I/I0 = 0.9, demonstrating that the black phosphorus is strongly protected in contrast to the rapid degradation of the bare and single-layer covered black phosphorus. The long term stability achieved by multi-layer graphene passivation makes it possible to perform various electronic and optical experiments aimed for device application of this direct-gap van der Waals semiconductor with high electronic and thermal mobility under ambient environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-169
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Applied Physics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2016


  • Black phosphorus
  • Graphene passivation
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Stability


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