Mild Oxidative Stress Induced by Sodium Arsenite Reduces Lipocalin-2 Expression Levels in Cortical Glial Cells

Ye Jin Cho, So Hyun Park, Kwon Yul Ryu

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2 Scopus citations


Astrocytes and microglia, the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system, are involved in maintaining homeostasis in the brain microenvironment and in the progression of various neurological disorders. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a small secretory protein that can be transcriptionally upregulated via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. It is synthesized and secreted by glial cells, resulting in either the restoration of damaged neural tissues or the induction of neuronal apoptosis in a context-dependent manner. It has recently been reported that when glial cells are under lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory stress, either reduced production or accelerated degradation of LCN2 can alleviate neurotoxicity. However, the regulatory mechanisms of LCN2 in glial cells are not yet fully understood. In this study, we used primary astroglial-enriched cells which produce LCN2 and found that the production of LCN2 could be reduced by sodium arsenite treatment. Surprisingly, the reduced LCN2 production was not due to the suppression of NF-κB signaling. Mild oxidative stress induced by sodium arsenite treatment activated antioxidant responses and downregulated Lcn2 expression without reducing the viability of astroglial-enriched cells. Intriguingly, reduced LCN2 production could not be achieved by simple activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)–Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway in astroglial-enriched cells. Thus, it appears that mild oxidative stress, occurring in an Nrf2-independent manner, is required for the downregulation of Lcn2 expression. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of LCN2 and suggest that mild oxidative stress may alter LCN2 homeostasis, even under neuroinflammatory conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15864
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • astrocyte
  • glial cells
  • lipocalin-2
  • oxidative stress
  • sodium arsenite


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