Multiple charge density wave phases of monolayer VSe2manifested by graphene substrates

Ganbat Duvjir, Byoung Ki Choi, Trinh Thi Ly, Nguyen Huu Lam, Kyuha Jang, Dang Duc Dung, Young Jun Chang, Jungdae Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


A combined study of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is conducted to understand the multiple charge density wave (CDW) phases of monolayer (ML) VSe2 films manifested by graphene substrates. Submonolayer (∼0.8 ML) VSe2 films are prepared on two different substrates of single-layer graphene (SLG) and bi-layer graphene (BLG) on a 6H-SiC(0001). We find that ML VSe2 films are less coupled to the SLG substrate compared to that of ML VSe2/BLG. Then, ML VSe2 grown on SLG and BLG substrates reveals a very different topography in STM. While ML VSe2/BLG shows one unidirectional modulation of √3 × 2 and √3 × √7 CDW in topography, ML VSe2/SLG presents a clear modulation of 4 × 1 CDW interfering with √3 × 2 and √3 × √7 CDW which has not been previously observed. We explicitly show that the reciprocal vector of 4 × 1 CDW fits perfectly into the long parallel sections of cigar-shaped Fermi surfaces near the M point in ML VSe2, satisfying Fermi surface nesting. Since bulk VSe2 is also well-known for the 4 × 4 × 3 CDW formed by Fermi surface nesting, the 4 × 1 CDW in ML VSe2/SLG is attributed to the planar projection of 4 × 4 × 3 CDW in bulk. Our result clarifies the nature of the 4 × 1 CDW in ML VSe2 system and is a good example demonstrating the essential role of substrates in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

Original languageEnglish
Article number364002
Issue number36
StatePublished - 3 Sep 2021


  • angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy
  • charge density wave
  • graphene
  • scanning tunneling microscopy
  • transition metal dichalcogenide
  • van der Waals heterostructures


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