Numerical Verification of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem for Isolated Quantum Systems

Jae Dong Noh, Takahiro Sagawa, Joonhyun Yeo

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12 Scopus citations


The fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) is a hallmark of thermal equilibrium systems in the Gibbs state. We address the question whether the FDT is obeyed by isolated quantum systems in an energy eigenstate. In the framework of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis, we derive the formal expression for two-time correlation functions in the energy eigenstates or in the diagonal ensemble. They satisfy the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger condition, which is the sufficient and necessary condition for the FDT, in the infinite system size limit. We also obtain the finite size correction to the FDT for finite-sized systems. With extensive numerical works for the XXZ spin chain model, we confirm our theory for the FDT and the finite size correction. Our results can serve as a guide line for an experimental study of the FDT on a finite-sized system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number050603
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number5
StatePublished - 31 Jul 2020


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