Persistence of the socialist collective housing areas (KTTs): the evolution and contemporary transformation of mass housing in Hanoi, Vietnam

Nami Hong, Saehoon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


This study examined the spatial patterns and transformation of the socialist collective housing areas (KTTs). The areas experienced physical and functional changes with Hanoi’s urbanization after the country’s reforms. The KTTs were originally built on the outskirt of Hanoi during the 1960s–1980s. The development was influenced by the state-led mass housing model originated from the micro-district concept of the former Soviet Union. With the urban expansion of Hanoi, the KTTs have become situated in the city’s central area. The study attempted to analyze the location of Hanoi’s KTTs based on the distance from the inner-city area. The outcome of physical transformation, the use of spaces, housing prices, and conditions of the surrounding areas of the KTTs were investigated based on a resident survey of 240 households and field studies in six KTTs sites. Changes in the use of spaces on the ground-level, addition of self-extended structure from existing housing units, and wholesale redevelopment were observed from the field studies. The degree and pattern of changes were different by locational types. The KTTs located near the inner-city area with good accessibility was the most actively transformed. The study showed that the living conditions of the KTTs were influenced by the location as well as social and economic factors such as transitional living culture and an increase in the residents’ income. Furthermore, the study found that Hanoi’s KTTs play an essential role as adequate urban housing due to their locational advantages, the presence of an intimate community, and affordable housing prices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)601-625
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Housing and the Built Environment
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Hanoi
  • Living condition
  • Mass housing
  • Socialist collective housing area
  • Urban renovation
  • Urbanization


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