Photoactive Layer Formation with Oven Annealing for a Carbon Electrode Perovskite Solar Cell

Kwangbae Kim, Ohsung Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The photovoltaic properties of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a carbon electrode fabricated using different annealing processes are investigated. Perovskite formation (50 oC, 60 min) using a hot-plate and an oven is carried out on cells with a glass/fluorine doped TiO2/TiO2/ZrO2/carbon structure, and the photovoltaic properties of the PSCs are analyzed using a solar simulator. The microstructures of the PSCs are characterized using an optical microscope, a field emission scanning electron microscope, and an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Photovoltaic analysis shows that the energy conversion efficiency of the samples fabricated using the hot-plate and the oven processes are 2.08% and 6.90%, respectively. Based on the microstructure of the samples and the results of the EPMA, perovskite is formed locally on the carbon electrode surface as the γ-butyrolactone (GBL) solvent evaporates and moves to the top of the carbon electrode due to heat from the bottom of the sample during the hot plate process. When the oven process is used, perovskite forms evenly inside the carbon electrode, as the GBL solvent evaporates extremely slowly because heat is supplied from all directions. The importance of the even formation of perovskite inside the carbon electrode is emphasized, and the feasibility of oven annealing is confirmed for PSCs with carbon electrodes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)595-600
Number of pages6
JournalKorean Journal of Materials Research
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2020


  • active layer
  • carbon electrode
  • hot-plate
  • oven
  • perovskite solar cell


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