Photocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction: Exploring the role of ultrathin 2D graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)

Maansi Aggarwal, Soumen Basu, Nagaraj P. Shetti, Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda, Eilhann E. Kwon, Young Kwon Park, Tejraj M. Aminabhavi

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72 Scopus citations


Photocatalytic CO2 reduction is the key strategic factor to mitigate the detrimental consequences arising from greenhouse gases (predominantly anthropogenic CO2). Products (CH4, C2H6, CH3OH, C2H5OH, etc.,) that are derived from the reduction of CO2 could be promising alternatives to petro-derived fuel/chemicals. Even though a great deal of efforts has been devoted to increase the conversion efficiency of CO2, the technical readiness level (TRL) has not yet been fully matured. This review emphasizes on the emerging functional material ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) for the reduction of CO2 into value-added products. Physico-chemical properties of 2D-cabon nitride (sizeable surface-to-volume ratio, supplementary active sites onto the surface, shorter diffusion length, bandgap tuning, atomic thickness, and bulk to surface charge transportation) governing the photocatalytic activity are discussed. This review provides recent advances in 2D-carbon nitride photocatalysts to highlight the ongoing challenges and new strategies to optimize their functionality for improved selectivity for CO2 conversion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number131402
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Carbon dioxide
  • Graphitic carbon nitride
  • Photocatalyst
  • Photocatalytic reduction
  • Solar fuels
  • Ultrathin 2D nanosheets


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