Precision evaluation of recent global geopotential models based on GNSS/leveling data on unified control points

Jisun Lee, Jay Hyoun Kwon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


After launching the GOCE (Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer) which obtains high-frequency gravity signal using a gravity gradiometer, many research institutes are concentrating on the development of GGM (Global Geopotential Model) based on GOCE data and evaluating its precision. The precision of some GGMs was also evaluated in Korea. However, some studies dealt with GGMs constructed based on initial GOCE data or others applied a part of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) / Leveling data on UCPs (Unified Control Points) for the precision evaluation. Now, GGMs which have a higher degree than EGM2008 (Earth Gravitational Model 2008) are available and UCPs were fully established at the end of 2019. Thus, EIGEN-6C4 (European Improved Gravity Field of the Earth by New techniques - 6C4), GECO (GOCE and EGM2008 Combined model), XGM2016 (Experimental Gravity Field Model 2016), SGG-UGM-1, XGM2019e_2159 were collected with EGM2008, and their precisions were assessed based on the GNSS/Leveling data on UCPs. Among GGMs, it was found that XGM2019e_2159 showed the minimum difference compared to a total of 5,313 points of GNSS/Leveling data. It is about a 1.5cm and 0.6cm level of improvement compare to EGM2008 and EIGEN-6C4. Especially, the local biases in the northern part of Gyeonggi-do, Jeju island shown in the EGM2008 was removed, so that both mean and standard deviation of the difference of XGM2019e_2159 to the GNSS/Leveling are homogeneous regardless of region (mountainous or plain area). NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) is currently in progress in developing EGM2020 and XGM2019e_2159 is the experimentally published model of EGM2020. Therefore, it is expected that the improved GGM will be available shortly so that it is necessary to verify the precision of new GGMs consistently.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-163
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2020


  • Earth Gravitational Model 2008
  • Experimental Gravity Field Model 2019e_2159
  • GNSS/Leveling data
  • Global Geopotential Model
  • Precision Evaluation


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