Pseudospin order in monolayer, bilayer and double-layer graphene

A. H. MacDonald, Jeil Jung, Fan Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Graphene is a gapless semiconductor in which conduction and valence band wavefunctions differ only in the phase difference between their projections onto the two sublattices of the material's two-dimensional honeycomb crystal structure. We explain why this circumstance creates openings for broken symmetry states, including antiferromagnetic states in monolayer and bilayer graphene and exciton condensates in double-layer graphene, which are momentum space analogues of the real-space order common in systems with strong local interactions. We discuss some similarities among, and some differences between, these three broken symmetry states.

Original languageEnglish
Article number014012
JournalPhysica Scripta
Issue numberT146
StatePublished - Jan 2012


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