Pyrolysis of solid waste residues from Lemon Myrtle essential oils extraction for bio-oil production

Muhammad S. Abu Bakar, Ashfaq Ahmed, Deane M. Jeffery, Syarif Hidayat, Rahayu S. Sukri, Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia, Farrukh Jamil, Muhammad Shahzad Khurrum, Abrar Inayat, Surendar Moogi, Young Kwon Park

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66 Scopus citations


Solid waste residues from the extraction of essential oils are projected to increase and need to be treated appropriately. Valorization of waste via pyrolysis can generate value-added products, such as chemicals and energy. The characterization of lemon myrtle residues (LMR) highlights their suitability for pyrolysis, with high volatile matter and low ash content. Thermogravimetric analysis/derivative thermogravimetric revealed the maximum pyrolytic degradation of LMR at 335 °C. The pyrolysis of LMR for bio-oil production was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor within a temperature range of 350–550 °C. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the bio-oil contained abundant amounts of acetic acid, phenol, 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione, 1,2-benzenediol, guaiacol, 2-furanmethanol, and methyl dodecanoate. An increase in pyrolysis temperature led to a decrease in organic acid and ketones from 18.09% to 8.95% and 11.99% to 8.75%, respectively. In contrast, guaiacols and anhydrosugars increased from 24.23% to 30.05% and from 3.57% to 7.98%, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123913
JournalBioresource Technology
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Bio-oil
  • Biorefinery
  • Lemon myrtle
  • Pyrolysis
  • Solid waste residue


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