Quality control of mass-produced GEM detectors for the CMS GE1/1 muon upgrade

M. Abbas, M. Abbrescia, H. Abdalla, A. Abdelalim, S. AbuZeid, A. Agapitos, A. Ahmad, A. Ahmed, W. Ahmed, C. Aimè, C. Aruta, I. Asghar, P. Aspell, C. Avila, J. Babbar, Y. Ban, R. Band, S. Bansal, L. Benussi, T. BeyrouthyV. Bhatnagar, M. Bianco, S. Bianco, K. Black, L. Borgonovi, O. Bouhali, A. Braghieri, S. Braibant, S. D. Butalla, S. Calzaferri, M. Caponero, J. Carlson, F. Cassese, N. Cavallo, S. S. Chauhan, S. Colafranceschi, A. Colaleo, J. Collins, A. Conde Garcia, M. Dalchenko, A. De Iorio, G. De Lentdecker, D. Dell Olio, G. De Robertis, W. Dharmaratna, S. Dildick, B. Dorney, R. Erbacher, F. Fabozzi, F. Fallavollita, A. Ferraro, D. Fiorina, E. Fontanesi, M. Franco, C. Galloni, P. Giacomelli, S. Gigli, J. Gilmore, M. Gola, M. Gruchala, A. Gutierrez, T. Hakkarainen, J. Hauser, K. Hoepfner, M. Hohlmann, H. Hoorani, T. Huang, P. Iaydjiev, A. Irshad, A. Iorio, F. Ivone, W. Jang, J. Jaramillo, A. Juodagalvis, E. Juska, B. Kailasapathy, T. Kamon, Y. Kang, P. Karchin, A. Kaur, H. Kaur, H. Keller, H. Kim, J. Kim, S. Kim, B. Ko, A. Kumar, S. Kumar, N. Lacalamita, J. S.H. Lee, A. Levin, Q. Li, F. Licciulli, L. Lista, K. Liyanage, F. Loddo, M. Luhach, M. Maggi, Y. Maghrbi, N. Majumdar, K. Malagalage, S. Malhotra, S. Martiradonna, C. McLean, J. Merlin, M. Misheva, G. Mocellin, L. Moureaux, A. Muhammad, S. Muhammad, S. Mukhopadhyay, M. Naimuddin, S. Nuzzo, R. Oliveira, P. Paolucci, I. C. Park, L. Passamonti, G. Passeggio, A. Peck, A. Pellecchia, N. Perera, L. Petre, H. Petrow, D. Piccolo, D. Pierluigi, M. Rahmani, F. Ramirez, A. Ranieri, G. Rashevski, B. Regnery, M. Ressegotti, C. Riccardi, M. Rodozov, E. Romano, C. Roskas, B. Rossi, P. Rout, J. D. Ruiz, A. Russo, A. Safonov, A. K. Sahota, D. Saltzberg, G. Saviano, A. Shah, A. Sharma, R. Sharma, T. Sheokand, M. Shopova, F. M. Simone, J. Singh, U. Sonnadara, A. Stamerra, E. Starling, B. Stone, J. Sturdy, G. Sultanov, Z. Szillasi, D. Teague, D. Teyssier, T. Tuuva, M. Tytgat, I. Vai, N. Vanegas, R. Venditti, P. Verwilligen, W. Vetens, A. K. Virdi, P. Vitulo, A. Wajid, D. Wang, K. Wang, I. J. Watson, N. Wickramage, D. D.C. Wickramarathna, S. Yang, U. Yang, Y. Yang, J. Yongho, I. Yoon, Z. You, I. Yu, S. Zaleski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

The series of upgrades to the Large Hadron Collider, culminating in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, will enable a significant expansion of the physics program of the CMS experiment. However, the accelerator upgrades will also make the experimental conditions more challenging, with implications for detector operations, triggering, and data analysis. The luminosity of the proton–proton collisions is expected to exceed 2–3×1034 cm−2s−1 for Run 3 (starting in 2022), and it will be at least 5×1034 cm−2s−1 when the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is completed for Run 4. These conditions will affect muon triggering, identification, and measurement, which are critical capabilities of the experiment. To address these challenges, additional muon detectors are being installed in the CMS endcaps, based on Gas Electron Multiplier technology. For this purpose, 161 large triple-Gas Electron Multiplier detectors have been constructed and tested. Installation of these devices began in 2019 with the GE1/1 station and will be followed by two additional stations, GE2/1 and ME0, to be installed in 2023 and 2026, respectively. The assembly and quality control of the GE1/1 detectors were distributed across several production sites around the world. We motivate and discuss the quality control procedures that were developed to standardize the performance of the detectors, and we present the final results of the production. Out of 161 detectors produced, 156 detectors passed all tests, and 144 detectors are now installed in the CMS experiment. The various visual inspections, gas tightness tests, intrinsic noise rate characterizations, and effective gas gain and response uniformity tests allowed the project to achieve this high success rate.

Keywords

  • CMS upgrade
  • Gas electron multiplier
  • Gaseous detector
  • Muon system

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