RawNet: Advanced end-to-end deep neural network using raw waveforms for text-independent speaker verification

Jee Weon Jung, Hee Soo Heo, Ju Ho Kim, Hye Jin Shim, Ha Jin Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations

Abstract

Recently, direct modeling of raw waveforms using deep neural networks has been widely studied for a number of tasks in audio domains. In speaker verification, however, utilization of raw waveforms is in its preliminary phase, requiring further investigation. In this study, we explore end-to-end deep neural networks that input raw waveforms to improve various aspects: front-end speaker embedding extraction including model architecture, pre-training scheme, additional objective functions, and back-end classification. Adjustment of model architecture using a pre-training scheme can extract speaker embeddings, giving a significant improvement in performance. Additional objective functions simplify the process of extracting speaker embeddings by merging conventional two-phase processes: extracting utterance-level features such as i-vectors or x-vectors and the feature enhancement phase, e.g., linear discriminant analysis. Effective back-end classification models that suit the proposed speaker embedding are also explored. We propose an end-to-end system that comprises two deep neural networks, one front-end for utterance-level speaker embedding extraction and the other for back-end classification. Experiments conducted on the VoxCeleb1 dataset demonstrate that the proposed model achieves state-of-the-art performance among systems without data augmentation. The proposed system is also comparable to the state-of-the-art x-vector system that adopts heavy data augmentation.

Keywords

  • Deep neural network
  • End-to-end
  • Raw waveform
  • Speaker embedding

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