Reflection-induced penalty in Raman amplified systems

C. H. Kim, Jake Bromage, R. M. Jopson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


In this letter, we describe the measurement of reflection-induced penalties in Raman amplified systems. We find that the reflection-induced inband crosstalk power ratio (Rc) provides a convenient means for predicting system penalties from crosstalk due to either a pair of discrete reflections or a discrete reflection combined with Rayleigh backscattering, occurring under a variety of system parameters, such as fiber attenuation, Raman gain efficiency, Raman pump power, mode field size, connector reflectance, and fiber length, A 1-dB penalty in our optically preamplified receiver is observed when the reflection-induced inband crosstalk level is -25.2 dB for nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signals and -22.8 dB for 50% return-to-zero signals. We also estimate the penalties of multispan systems using Rc per span. We find, for instance, that a Raman amplified system consisting of 30 spans with an Rc of -40 dB per span would sustain a 1-dB penalty for NRZ signals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)573-575
Number of pages3
JournalIEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2002


  • Inband crosstalk
  • Multipath interference
  • Raman amplifiers


Dive into the research topics of 'Reflection-induced penalty in Raman amplified systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this