Rheological property criteria for buildable 3D printing concrete

Hoseong Jeong, Sun Jin Han, Seung Ho Choi, Yoon Jung Lee, Seong Tae Yi, Kang Su Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


Fresh concrete used in 3D printing should ensure adequate yield stress, otherwise the printed concrete layer may suffer intolerable deformation or collapse during the printing process. In response to this issue, an analytical study was carried out to derive the initial yield stress and hardening coefficient of fresh concrete suitable for 3D printing. The maximum shear stress distribution of fresh concrete was calculated using a stress transformation equation derived from the equilibrium condition of forces. In addition, the elapsed time experienced by fresh concrete during the printing processes was estimated and was then substituted into the elapsed time-yield stress function to calculate the yield stress distribution. Based on these results, an algorithm capable of deriving both the initial yield stress and the hardening coefficient required for printing fresh concrete up to the target height was proposed and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to verify the accuracy of the proposed model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number657
Issue number4
StatePublished - 21 Feb 2019


  • 3D printing
  • Buildability
  • Concrete
  • Mixture design
  • Rheology


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