Solar cells for indoor applications: Progress and development

Swarup Biswas, Hyeok Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


The Internet of things (IoT) has been rapidly growing in the past few years. IoT connects numerous devices, such as wireless sensors, actuators, and wearable devices, to optimize and monitor daily activities. Most of these devices require power in the microwatt range and operate indoors. To this end, a self-sustainable power source, such as a photovoltaic (PV) cell, which can harvest low-intensity indoor light, is appropriate. Recently, the development of highly efficient PV cells for indoor applications has attracted tremendous attention. Therefore, different types of PV materials, such as inorganic, dye-sensitized, organic, and perovskite materials, have been employed for harvesting low-intensity indoor light energy. Although considerable efforts have been made by researchers to develop low-cost, stable, and efficient PV cells for indoor applications, Extensive investigation is necessary to resolve some critical issues concerning PV cells, such as environmental stability, lifetime, large-area fabrication, mechanical flexibility, and production cost. To address these issues, a systematic review of these aspects will be highly useful to the research community. This study discusses the current status of the development of indoor PV cells based on previous reports. First, we have provided relevant background information. Then, we have described the different indoor light sources, and subsequently critically reviewed previous reports regarding indoor solar cells based on different active materials such as inorganic, dye-sensitized, organic, and perovskite. Finally, we have placed an attempt to provide insight into factors needed to further improve the feasibility of PV technology for indoor applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1338
Pages (from-to)1338
Number of pages1
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2020


  • Internet of things
  • Low-intensity indoor light
  • Microelectronic device
  • Photovoltaic technology


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