Technological Insights into the Evolution of Bronze Bell Metal Casting on the Korean Peninsula

Chun Soo Won, Jae Pil Jung, Kwang Sik Won, Ashutosh Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Bronze cast bells have been designed and developed for hundreds of years, with the worldwide spread of several faiths and religions such as Buddhism, Catholicism, and Protestantism. The exceptional ringtones of bronze bell metals have scientific healing and cultural importance. In this review article, we highlight the evolution of bronze bell metal over the decades, its composition, and the complex fabrication technologies used to date. Furthermore, we overview ancient and modern casting alloy technology, especially bronze bell castings in Asia. The bell shape, materials, and alloy casting technology have undergone dramatic change over the years. For comparison, we include different bronze cast bells and their characteristics produced from the Middle Ages to the present times. Based on the data obtained from the bell casting technology surrounding the Korean Peninsula, the major trends in the evolution of bronze bell castings and long-standing traditions of mold materials and alloys are described. In the present review, the effects of different elements on bell materials are qualitatively overviewed, with an assessment of the material and casting properties, service life, and bell sound. We also highlight the challenges of conventional bronze casting and possible solutions for future investment castings and rapid prototyping of bronze bells.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1776
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • 3D printing
  • bells
  • bronze
  • cast alloys
  • silicon
  • wax casting


Dive into the research topics of 'Technological Insights into the Evolution of Bronze Bell Metal Casting on the Korean Peninsula'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this