The cancer driver genes IDH1/2, JARID1C/ KDM5C, and UTX/ KDM6A: crosstalk between histone demethylation and hypoxic reprogramming in cancer metabolism

Soojeong Chang, Sujin Yim, Hyunsung Park

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

133 Scopus citations

Abstract

Recent studies on mutations in cancer genomes have distinguished driver mutations from passenger mutations, which occur as byproducts of cancer development. The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) project identified 299 genes and 24 pathways/biological processes that drive tumor progression (Cell 173: 371-385 e318, 2018). Of the 299 driver genes, 12 genes are involved in histones, histone methylation, and demethylation (Table 1). Among these 12 genes, those encoding the histone demethylases JARID1C/KDM5C and UTX/KDM6A were identified as cancer driver genes. Furthermore, gain-of-function mutations in genes encoding metabolic enzymes, such as isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH)1/2, drive tumor progression by producing an oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), which is a competitive inhibitor of α-ketoglutarate, O2-dependent dioxygenases such as Jumonji domain-containing histone demethylases, and DNA demethylases. Studies on oncometabolites suggest that histone demethylases mediate metabolic changes in chromatin structure. We have reviewed the most recent findings regarding cancer-specific metabolic reprogramming and the tumor-suppressive roles of JARID1C/KDM5C and UTX/KDM6A. We have also discussed mutations in other isoforms such as the JARID1A, 1B, 1D of KDM5 subfamilies and the JMJD3/KDM6B of KDM6 subfamilies, which play opposing roles in tumor progression as oncogenes or tumor suppressors depending on the cancer cell type.Table 1Tumor suppressor/oncogene prediction (by 20/20+a)Cancer typebKDM6APPP6CSETD2KDM5CARID5B, CREBBP, EP300, KANSL1, MEN1, NCOR1, NSD1, SIN3A, WHSC1, ZMYM3KMT2AKMT2BKMT2CKMT2DH3F3AAJUBA, ASXL1, ASXL2, ATF7IP, BCOR, CHD3, CHD4, CHD8, CTCF, NIPBL, NPM1H3F3CHIST1H1EIDH1Among the 299 driver genes mentioned by Bailey et al.47, only the epigenetics-related pathways have been sorted outa20/20+: Classifies genes as an oncogene, tumor suppressor gene, or as a nondriver gene using Random Forests, http://2020plus.readthedocs.orgbBLCA (bladder urothelial carcinoma), BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma), CESC (cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma), CHOL (cholangiocarcinoma), DLBC (lymphoid neoplasm diffuse large B-cell lymphoma), ESCA (esophageal carcinoma), GBM (glioblastoma multiforme), HNSC (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma), KIRC (kidney renal clear cell carcinoma), KIRP (kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma), LAML (acute myeloid leukemia), LGG (brain lower grade glioma), LIHC (liver hepatocellular carcinoma), LUAD (lung adenocarcinoma), LUSC (lung squamous cell carcinoma), MESO (mesothelioma), PAAD (pancreatic adenocarcinoma), PANCAN (Pan-cancer), PRAD (prostate adenocarcinoma), SKCM (skin cutaneous melanoma), THCA (thyroid carcinoma), UCEC (uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma).

Original languageEnglish
Article number66
JournalExperimental and Molecular Medicine
Volume51
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2019

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