The membrane binding domains of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases 1 and 2. Peptide mapping and mutational analysis

Andrew G. Spencer, Elizabeth Thuresson, James C. Otto, Inseok Song, Tim Smith, David L. DeWitt, R. Michael Garavito, William L. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations

Abstract

Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases 1 and 2 (PGHS-1 and -2) are the major targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Both isozymes are integral membrane proteins but lack transmembrane domains. X-ray crystallographic studies have led to the hypothesis that PGHS-1 and -2 associate with only one face of the membrane bilayer through a novel, monotopic membrane binding domain (MBD) that is comprised of four short, consecutive, amphipathic α-helices (helices A-D) that include residues 74- 122 in ovine PGHS-1 (oPGHS-1) and residues 59-108 in human PGHS-2 (hPGHS-2). Previous biochemical studies from our laboratory showed that the MBD of oPGHS-1 lies somewhere between amino acids 25 and 166. In studies reported here, membrane-associated forms of oPGHS-1 and hPGHS-2 were labeled using the hydrophobic, photoactivable reagent 3-trifluoro-3-(m- [125I]iodophenyl)diazirine, isolated, and cleaved with AspN and/or GluC, and the photolabeled peptides were sequenced. The results establish that the MBDs of oPGHS-1 and hPGHS-2 reside within residues 74-140 and 59-111, respectively, and thus provide direct provide biochemical support for the hypothesis that PGHS-1 and -2 do associate with membranes through a monotopic MBD. We also prepared HelA, HelB, and HelC mutants of oPGHS-1, in which, for each helix, three or four hydrophobic residues expected to protrude into the membrane were replaced with small, neutral residues. When expressed in COS-1 cells, HelA and HelC mutants exhibited little or no catalytic activity and were present, at least in part, as misfolded aggregates. The HelB mutant retained about 20% of the cyclooxygenase activity of native oPGHS-1 and partitioned in subcellular fractions like native oPGHS-1; however, the HelB mutant exhibited an extra site of N-glycosylation at Asn104. When this glycosylation site was eliminated (HelB/N104Q mutation), the mutant lacked cyclooxygenase activity. Thus, our mutational analyses indicate that the amphipathic character of each helix is important for the assembly and folding of oPGHS-1 to a cyclooxygenase active form.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32936-32942
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume274
Issue number46
DOIs
StatePublished - 12 Nov 1999

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