Tunable electrochromic behavior of biphenyl poly(viologen)-based ion gels in all-in-one devices

Vu Hong Vinh Quy, Keon Woo Kim, Jihyeon Yeo, Xiaowu Tang, Ye Ryeong In, Cheolmin Jung, Sun Moo Oh, Sang Jin Kim, Seung Woo Lee, Hong Chul Moon, Se Hyun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Electrochromic (EC) materials have attracted considerable attention for various applications, such as smart windows, information displays, and functional energy storage devices. In particular, poly(viologen) are promising EC materials owing to their flexible color tunability depending on the N-substituents and molecular weight. In this study, a new poly(viologen) containing biphenyl group and viologen (denoted as BP-poly(viologen)) was synthesized and employed in ion gel-based-EC devices (ECDs). Hydroquinone (H2Q) was used as the anodic species, and the H2Q/BP-poly(viologen) mole ratio was adjusted to obtain a balanced charge for the desired redox states of BP-poly(viologen). The resulting ECDs exhibited three different colors depending on the redox states of BP-poly(viologen): orange (dications), green (radical cations), and purple (neutral species). Color-switchable EC displays with various patterns were demonstrated using electro-force-assisted dispensing printing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106395
JournalOrganic Electronics
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • Electrochromic device
  • Printing
  • Transparent display
  • Viologen


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