Ultrafast mode-locking in highly stacked Ti3C2TxMXenes for 1.9-μm infrared femtosecond pulsed lasers

Young In Jhon, Jinho Lee, Young Min Jhon, Ju Han Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Metallic 2D materials can be promising saturable absorbers for ultrashort pulsed laser production in the long wavelength regime. However, preparing and manipulating their 2D structures without layer stacking have been nontrivial. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we demonstrate here that a metallic titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx), the most popular MXene 2D material, can have excellent nonlinear saturable absorption properties even in a highly stacked state due to its intrinsically existing surface termination, and thus can produce mode-locked femtosecond pulsed lasers in the 1.9-μm infrared range. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the electronic and optical properties of Ti3C2Tx MXene can be well preserved against significant layer stacking. Indeed, it is experimentally shown that 1.914-μm femtosecond pulsed lasers with a duration of 897 fs are readily generated within a fiber cavity using hundreds-of-layer stacked Ti3C2Tx MXene saturable absorbers, not only being much easier to manufacture than mono- or few-layered ones, but also offering character-conserved tightly-assembled 2D materials for advanced performance. This work strongly suggests that as-obtained highly stacked Ti3C2Tx MXenes can serve as superb material platforms for versatile nanophotonic applications, paving the way toward cost-effective, high-performance photonic devices based on MXenes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1741-1751
Number of pages11
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2021


  • 1.9-μm infrared laser
  • 2D material
  • TiCTMXene
  • femtosecond mode-locked laser
  • layer stacking
  • saturable absorber


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