Ultrahigh-resolution scanning microwave impedance microscopy of moiré lattices and superstructures

Kyunghoon Lee, M. Iqbal Bakti Utama, Salman Kahn, Appalakondaiah Samudrala, Nicolas Leconte, Birui Yang, Shuopei Wang, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Virginia M.P. Altoé, Guangyu Zhang, Alexander Weber-Bargioni, Michael Crommie, Paul D. Ashby, Jeil Jung, Feng Wang, Alex Zettl

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22 Scopus citations


Two-dimensional heterostructures composed of layers with slightly different lattice vectors exhibit new periodic structure known as moiré lattices, which, in turn, can support novel correlated and topological phenomena. Moreover, moiré superstructures can emerge from multiple misaligned moiré lattices or inhomogeneous strain distributions, offering additional degrees of freedom in tailoring electronic structure. High-resolution imaging of the moiré lattices and superstructures is critical for understanding the emerging physics. Here, we report the imaging of moiré lattices and superstructures in graphene-based samples under ambient conditions using an ultrahigh-resolution implementation of scanning microwave impedance microscopy. Although the probe tip has a gross radius of ~100 nm, spatial resolution better than 5 nm is achieved, which allows direct visualization of the structural details in moiré lattices and the composite super-moiré. We also demonstrate artificial synthesis of novel superstructures, including the Kagome moiré arising from the interplay between different layers.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbereabd1919
JournalScience advances
Issue number50
StatePublished - 9 Dec 2020


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