User-Customized, Multicolor, Transparent Electrochemical Displays Based on Oxidatively Tuned Electrochromic Ion Gels

Hwan Oh, Jae Kyeong Lee, Yong Min Kim, Tae Yong Yun, Unyong Jeong, Hong Chul Moon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Transparent displays have emerged as a class of cutting-edge electronics. Here, we propose user-customized, design-it-yourself (DIY) transparent displays based on electrochromic (EC) ion gels including viologens. To achieve multiple colors and enhance the functionality of EC displays (ECDs), the incorporation of several EC chromophores is inevitable. However, the issue related to the discrepancy of coloration voltages is inherent due to the different electrochemical characteristics of each material, causing unbalance of the color contrast. To overcome this problem without significantly affecting the performance of ECDs, we suggest a simple but effective strategy by adjusting the oxidation activity of electrolyte-soluble anodic species (i.e., ferrocene (Fc) derivatives) by modifying pendant groups. We systematically investigated the effects of the employed Fc derivatives on the EC behaviors of ECDs in terms of the coloration voltage, maximum transmittance contrast, device dynamics, coloration efficiency, and operational stability. We determine the conditions for implementing red-green-blue (RGB) colors with comparable intensities at similar voltages. Last, we draw images using RGB EC inks for conceptual demonstration of the DIY transparent displays. The fabricated ECDs exhibit transparent bleached states and user-customized images in the colored states. Overall, this result implies that the extremely simple DIY ECDs, which do not require conventional lithography or printing, have great potential as future transparent displays that can be easily customized.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45959-45968
Number of pages10
JournalACS applied materials & interfaces
Issue number49
StatePublished - 11 Dec 2019


  • design-it-yourself protocol
  • electrochromism
  • ferrocene derivatives
  • ion gels
  • transparent displays


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